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Abbreviation for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, the suite of communications protocols used to connect hosts on the Internet.
TCP/IP uses several protocols, the two main ones being TCP and IP. TCP/IP is built into the UNIX operating system and is used by the Internet, making it the de facto standard for transmitting data over networks. Even network operating systems that have their own protocols, such as Netware, also support TCP/IP.
The science of translating sound into electrical signals, transmitting them, and then converting them back to sound; that is, the science of telephones.
The term is used frequently to refer to computer hardware and software that performs functions traditionally performed by telephone equipment.
For example, telephony software can combine with your modem to turn your computer into a sophisticated answering service. Voice mail is another popular telephony application.
The amount of data transferred from one place to another or processed in a specified amount of time.
Data transfer rates for disk drives and networks are measured in terms of throughput. Typically, throughputs are measured in Kbps, Mbps and Gbps.
A utility that traces a packet from your computer to an Internet host, showing how many hops the packet requires to reach the host and how long each hop takes.
If you're visiting a Web site and pages are appearing slowly, you can use traceroute to figure out where the longest delays are occurring.
Windows includes a traceroute utility called tracert. In Windows 95, you can run tracert by selecting Start->Run…, and then entering tracert followed by the domain name of the host.
Traceroute utilities work by sending packets with low time-to-live (TTL) fields. The TTL value specifies how many hops the packet is allowed before it is returned.
When a packet can't reach its destination because the TTL value is too low, the last host returns the packet and identifies itself.
By sending a series of packets and incrementing the TTL value with each successive packet, traceroute finds out who all the intermediary hosts are.
A destructive program that masquerades as a benign application.
Unlike a viruses, Trojan horses do not replicate themselves but they can be just as destructive.
One of the most insidious types of Trojan horse is a program that claims to rid your computer of viruses but instead introduces viruses onto your computer.
In CATV, an upstream channel is a frequency band that is used to send signals from the user to the headend.
Short for Universal Serial Bus, a new external bus standard that supports data transfer rates of 12 Mbps (12 million bits per second).
A single USB port can be used to connect up to 127 peripheral devices, such as mice, modems, and keyboards. USB also supports Plug-and-Play installation and hot plugging.
Short for Unshielded Twisted Pair, a popular type of cable that consists of two unshielded wires twisted around each other.
Due to its low cost, UTP cabling is used extensively for local-area networks (LANs) and telephone connections.
Conducting a conference between two or more participants at different sites by using computer networks to transmit audio and video data.
For example, a point-to-point (two-person) video conferencing system works much like a video telephone. Each participant has a video camera, microphone, and speakers mounted on his or her computer. As the two participants speak to one another, their voices are carried over the network and delivered to the other's speakers, and whatever images appear in front of the video camera appear in a window on the other participant's monitor.
Multipoint videoconferencing allows three or more participants to sit in a virtual conference room and communicate as if they were sitting right next to each other.
Until the mid 90s, the hardware costs made videoconferencing prohibitively expensive for most organizations, but that situation is changing rapidly. Many analysts believe that videoconferencing will be one of the fastest-growing segments of the computer industry in the latter half of the decade.
A program or piece of code that is loaded onto your computer without your knowledge and runs against your wishes.
Most viruses can also replicate themselves. All computer viruses are manmade. A simple virus that can make a copy of itself over and over again is relatively easy to produce. Even such a simple virus is dangerous because it will quickly use all available memory and bring the system to a halt. An even more dangerous type of virus is one capable of transmitting itself across networks and bypassing security systems.